Liposomes are spherical particles formed from lipid membranes, ranging in size from around 20 to several hundred nanometers, which include an aqueous phase and the membrane shell of which consists of a double layer of molecules containing both a nonpolar (lipophilic, fat-loving) and a polar (hydrophilic, water-loving) part, and are therefore referred to as amphiphilic. High pressure homogenisers and ultrasound processing are also frequently employed in the production of liposomes.
Modern homogenisers can also be employed in the production of liposomes. In addition to high performance and flexibility, the process plant should also offer numerous possibilities for the installation of additional components, such as a regulated flow measurement. In this way, the energy input during liposome production can be fully automatically controlled and its compliance ensured.
Process plants enable flexible use, as they allow adjustment of the shear energy during homogenisation, from the highest to the gentlest circulation and pumping of the products. The machine designs should offer a wide range of shear intensity, in order to cover all stages of the liposome production. Infinitely variable speed adjustment of the agitator and the homogeniser, the reversing operation and both radial and vertical mixing should further ensure optimum production conditions.