Shampoo is a product of the cosmetic industry, but is also produced in “close to nature” form (natural cosmetics). It is usually creamy or liquid and generally perfumed.
A shampoo should ensure high hair-cleansing power, optimal compatibility and a nourishing effect for the hair. In addition, shampoo should produce foam and be insensitive to water hardness. In order to achieve optimum hair cleansing, it is characterised by a high pH-value. The composition of the ingredients can vary considerably from product to product. However, shampoos almost always contain water and tensides. Co-surfactants, complex and film-formers, preservatives, fragrance oils, buffers and even UV absorbers are used for the cleansing effect.
The production of shampoo proceeds in complex, seamlessly interlinked production steps, which high-performance homogenisation plants can carry out without problem. Modern agitators can combine water and tensides (ether sulphate) after the Hot-Cold Process at room temperature directly in the shear gap of the homogeniser. This prevents the ether sulphate coming in contact with water whilst in the still undissolved state, as it then has a tendency to clump. The gel clumps are difficult to dissolve in this state.
The plants should also be able to take over the important control of the pH-value of the shampoo. Production under pressure and vacuum proof conditions is also important, so that the product does not come into contact with air and develop undesired foaming during production. An integrated Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) system should enable clean production processes and short CIP cleaning times.
With the appropriate pumps and homogenisers, shampoo can be produced in batch operation or continuously, depending on requirements and process.